Extracellular Vesicles derived by Stem Cells reduce the effects of Inflammation.

Published: January 2018

Abstract

First, we need to understand Extracellular vesicles (EVs).

Extracellular vesicles: Also known as EVs, are membrane-bound vesicles released from cells that can transport cargo. This includes DNA, RNA, and proteins. The transport occurs between cells as a form of inter-cellular communication.

EV’s secreted by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been proposed to be a key mechanistic link in the therapeutic efficacy of cells in response to cellular injuries through paracrine effects.

We hypothesize that inflammatory stimulation of MSCs results in the release of EVs that have greater anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluates the immunomodulatory abilities of EVs derived from inflammation-stimulated and naive MSCs.

Detailed characterization of both EVs revealed differences in protein composition, cytokine profiles, and RNA content, despite similarities in size and expression of common surface markers. MSCEv+ further attenuated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a laboratory setting when compared to MSCEv, with a distinctly different pattern of EV-uptake by activated primary leukocyte subpopulations.

The efficacy of EVs was partially attributed to COX2/PGE2 expression.
COX-2/PGE 2 is a signalling mechanism in colorectal tumorigenesis, it’s ability influences the hallmarks of cancer. The present study demonstrates that inflammatory stimulation of MSCs renders release of EVs that have enhanced anti-inflammatory properties partially due to COX2/PGEpathway alteration.

REF: Harting, M., Srivastava, A., Zhaorigetu, S., Bair, H., Prabhakara, K., Toledano Furman, N., Vykoukal, J., Ruppert, K., Cox, C. and Olson, S. (2017). Inflammation-Stimulated Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate Inflammation. STEM CELLS, 36(1), pp.79-90.

TAGS: Macquarie Stem Cells, Dr. Ralph Bright, Stem Cells reduce inflammation, Stem Cells and Extracellular vesicles

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