Auto-Immune Remission & Stromal Vascular Fraction
This study discusses the use of SVF ( Stromal Vascular Fraction).
What is SVF?
SVF is the cellular mix obtained from your adipose tissue (body fat). It contains multiple strands of cells inclusive of;
- endothelial cells
- vascular progenitors
- haematopoietic progenitors
- mesencymal stem cells (MSC’s)
- haematopoietic stem cells (HSC’s)
- endothelial progenitor cells (EPC’s)
SVF is what we use right here in Macquarie Stem Cells.
In the published literature, the clinical use of systemically administered SVF cells has been reported in two pilot studies. The first was a description of 3 patients suffering from multiple sclerosis who received intravenous administration of SVF as part of a cellular cocktail. All 3 patients reported significant improvement neurologically, and demonstrated an excellent safety profile. Additionally, a patient case report described remission of RA subsequent to administration of autologous SVF.
Let’s take a closer look at the SVF and the abilities
- Migrate to injured tissue
Migration includes the ability to travel throughout the vascular system, homing to areas of damage.
- Differentiate into multiple tissues
Differentiation is the process where less specialized cells becomes a more specialized cell type, eg: stem cell becomes a cartilage cell or muscle cell.
- Release of trophic factors
Trophic Factors support, grow, nourish and feed all the cells in the body.
- Inhibit apoptosis
Apoptosis is the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism’s growth or development.
- Stimulate angiogenesis
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels, involving migration, growth, and differentiation of endothelial cells. This improves blood supply to the cells.
- Inhibit inflammation
Inflammation is our biological response to harmful stimuli, inflammation causes pain and this is how we identify areas of damage or areas that require our body’s attention. Inflammation is the common pathway for all chronic degenerative disorders. These cells can remove inflammation.
- Stimulate Treg activity
T regulatory cells are a component of the immune system that suppresses immune responses of other cells.
(Rohban and Pieber, 2017) (Fu et al., 2017) (Lauvrud et al., 2016) (Nguyen et al., 2016) (Chen et al., 2016) (Zachar, Bačenková and Rosocha, 2016)
Comparison of immunological properties led to the conclusion that adipose derived MSC appear to have similar properties in terms of suppressing mixed lymphocyte reactions, inhibiting release of type 1 and inflammatory cytokines, as well as generating progeny cells that appear to be relatively immune privileged. These data were confirmed by the group of Zhang et al. who compared cord blood, bone marrow, and adipose MSC and found almost identical ability to inhibit immune response.
What happens when the Treg cells are introduced?
Numerous autoimmune conditions enter remission as a result of increased Treg number and/or activity, whereas relapse is associated with reduction in number and/or activity. Specifically, this has been demonstrated in multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Given the importance of Treg cells in the control of autoimmunity, it would be useful to possess sources of Treg cells that are easily accessible and can be reintroduced into the patient for immune modulation.
It is known that the adipose derived cytokines leptin and TNF-alpha inhibit Treg proliferation and activity. The local effects of these cytokines would conceptually, be negated by liberating Treg from fat tissue followed by systemic re-administration, resulting in enhanced Treg activity.
Thus one conceptual advantage of utilizing SVF therapy would be not only the MSC content, which possesses various regenerative properties, but also Treg, which would enhance anti-inflammatory/tolerance inducing properties. Given that both MSC and Treg are considered to be tolerance-promoting, it may be feasible to consider that synergy of tolerance induction may be occurring when the two cell populations are co-administered in the form of SVF.
Riordan previously reported remission in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who was treated with autologous SVF. Animal studies using the collagen II model of RA have demonstrated that administration of MSC is associated with immune modulation, disease remission and regeneration of cartilage. Additionally, Riordan’s group and others have reported that Treg cells are associated with induction of disease remission.
Full Published Document Reference:
Paz Rodriguez, J., Murphy, M., Hong, S., Madrigal, M., March, K., Minev, B., Harman, R., Chen, C., Timmons, R., Marleau, A. and Riordan, N. (2012). Autologous stromal vascular fraction therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: rationale and clinical safety. International Archives of Medicine, 5(1), p.5.